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    開放校園實踐——塔登(Thaden)學校第1張圖片

    并不是每個設計團隊能夠從頭開始構思一個學術校園。在德國私立Thaden學校的委托下,學校為大約500名6-12年級的學生提供服務,這所學校位于本頓維爾,占地32英畝,Arkansas-EskewDumezRipple (EDR)和Marlon Blackwell Architects (MBA)抓住了這個難得的機會,他們的冒險精神與教育建筑先鋒設計方法相適應,并為總體規劃和建筑提供了方案。

    沃爾瑪(Walmart)創始人領導的非營利組織沃爾頓家族基金會(Walton Family Foundation)設想,這所學校是將這家零售巨頭的家鄉打造為一個復雜且擔負全球總部使命的場所,在人口增長破紀錄、新建筑不斷增加的情況下,它仍保持著宜人的居住環境。

    Thaden School by EskewDumezRipple, Marlon Blackwell Architects and Andropogon
    It’s not every day that a design team gets a crack at conceiving an academic campus from the ground up. With their commission for the private Thaden School—eventually serving about 500 students in grades 6-12, on a 32-acre campus in Bentonville, Arkansas—EskewDumezRipple (EDR) and Marlon Blackwell Architects (MBA) seized this rare opportunity with an adventurous spirit befitting the pioneering approach to education that informed the master plan and architecture.
    Envisioned by the Walton Family Foundation, the nonprofit led by the founders of Walmart, the school is part of the mission to groom the retail giant’s hometown as a sophisticated global headquarters that, with record-breaking population growth and new construction, remains pleasantly livable.

    開放校園實踐——塔登(Thaden)學校第2張圖片

    2015年,在一項可行性研究之后,該基金會聘請普林斯頓大學(Princeton University)副院長Clayton Marsh創辦并領導一所全新的學院。Marsh在談到這所男女同校、無宗派、專注于創造力的大學預科走讀學校時說:“學校的開放性讓人耳目一新。為了營造學校的包容性,每個家庭將根據他們的能力支付學費。學生群體具有社會經濟多樣性,大約80%的家庭支付的金額低于學費的最高限額!

    In 2015, following a feasibility study, the foundation recruited Clayton Marsh, then deputy dean of the college at Princeton University, to launch and head a brand-new school. “The brief was refreshing in its open-endedness,” says Marsh, about the planned coed, nonsectarian college-prep day school with a focus on creativity. To foster inclusivity, families would pay tuition based on their resources. (Marsh says the student body is socioeconomically diverse, with about 80 percent of the families paying an amount below the maximum.)

    開放校園實踐——塔登(Thaden)學校第3張圖片

    為了開發新課程,Marsh從現場獲取線索。例如,他說:“你不能忽視騎車文化在這里越來越受歡迎,本頓維爾自稱世界山地自行車之都!瘪R什回憶起一位普林斯頓大學的前同事,他利用拆卸和重組摩托車的過程,讓學生們學習數學、物理和工程的原理。他認為自行車是Thaden的媒介。為了與社區組織合作,他還考慮了讓附近的烹飪學院幫助學生深入研究盤子的經濟性、政治性和生物化學性。此外,他還考慮了當地電影節的角色和阿肯色州西北部的藝術制作歷史。因此,Thaden的車輪(Wheels)、飲食 (Meals) 和里爾舞(Reels),這三個具有文化標志性的內容,將引導跨學科的學習方法,并強調制作過程。

    To develop the curriculum, Marsh took his cues from the locale. For example, “you could not overlook the culture of cycling that was gaining traction here,” he says. (Bentonville calls itself the Mountain Biking Capital of the World.) Recalling a former Princeton colleague who used the process of disassembling and reassembling motorcycles to engage students in the principles of mathematics, physics, and engineering, Marsh considered the bicycle as a medium for Thaden. And hoping to partner with community organizations, he also thought about how a nearby culinary institute could help students delve into the economics, politics, and biochemistry of the plate. In addition, he considered the role of a local film festival and the history of art-making in Northwest Arkansas. Thus evolved the three signature programs of Thaden—Wheels, Meals, and Reels—that would guide an interdisciplinary approach to learning, with an emphasis on making.

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    在整合課程和師資的同時,Marsh幫助設計了一個校園RFQ,該校園將補充新興的教學方法,無論是在規劃上還是在物理上,都將成為城市結構的一部分。為阿肯色州西北部創建了一個設計卓越項目的沃爾頓基金會(Walton foundation)邀請了一批公司參與到該項目。EDR和MBA被選中在校園總體規劃和建筑方面進行合作。Marsh說:“EDR和MBA的區別在于他們能夠將我們對學校的愿景轉化為建筑形式和空間!

    While putting together the curriculum and faculty, Marsh helped craft an RFQ for a campus that would complement the emerging pedagogy and become part of the city’s fabric, both programmatically and physically. The Walton foundation, which has created a design-excellence program for Northwest Arkansas, invited a short list of firms to submit for the project. EDR and MBA were selected to collaborate on both the campus master plan and the architecture. “What set EDR and MBA apart,” says Marsh, “was their ability to translate our vision for the school into architectural forms and spaces.”

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    該場地以前是縣級市,現在是一片開闊的田野,周圍是獨棟住宅和輕工業,一條南北通向本頓維爾附近的主廣場的街道將其一分為二。規劃的挑戰包括協調項目所需的少量空間(僅13.6萬平方英尺)和巨大的土地。EDR負責人兼設計總監Steve Dumez說:“我們需要制定一個總體規劃,既要考慮地緣景觀,也要考慮建筑景觀!毙@規劃合作者Andropogon巧妙地處理了景觀。在早期的談話中,Marsh曾令人難忘地說過:“建筑必須回應我們對于教室無處不在的想法,每一個空間都都存在內外部,這有利于學習。天冷的時候,孩子們需要感受天氣,下雨的時候,他們需要淋濕身體!盓DR的項目建筑師Christian Rodriguez說,“這一指示使我們很早就形成了多孔校園的概念!倍嗫仔@由幾個低矮的單層結構組成,而不是一個大型建筑,通過許多開口將它們與草地、蔬菜和雨水花園、草坪、水柱和蜿蜒的小路連接起來。在最近的一個下午,暴雨來襲,孩子們在有屋頂的走廊上猶豫了一下,然后掀開連帽衫,穿過院子奔向下一節課,這是一種了解大自然母親的變幻莫測的有效方式。

    The site, a former county fairgrounds, was an open field, bordered by single-family houses and light industry and bifurcated by a street running north–south to Bentonville’s nearby main square. The planning challenge involved reconciling the small amount of space required for the program—just 136,000 square feet—and the enormous plot of land. “We needed to develop a master plan that was as much about the landscape as the buildings,” says Steve Dumez, EDR principal and director of design; campus-planning collaborator Andropogon adroitly handled the landscape. “And it had to respond to Marsh’s idea of the classroom being everywhere, with every space—inside and out—conducive to learning.” In early conversations, Marsh had memorably said, “When it’s cold, the kids need to feel the weather, and when it rains, they need to get wet.” According to Christian Rodriguez, EDR’s project architect, “That directive led us to arrive early at the concept of a porous campus” of several low-slung single-story structures—rather than one large building—with many openings connecting them to meadows, vegetable and rain gardens, lawns, water features, and meandering paths. On a recent afternoon, as a rainstorm moved in, children hesitated on a covered porch before flipping up hoodies and dashing across the quad to their next classes—an effective way of learning the vagaries of mother nature.

    開放校園實踐——塔登(Thaden)學校第11張圖片

    學校是分階段開發的,首先是由EDR設計的臨時模塊化設施,該設施于2017年開放(現在已經消失)。四座主要建筑的中心有一個寬敞的庭院(地下有地熱井)。每座建筑都體現了一個文化標志性的元素:Wheels是一個柔軟、蜿蜒的數學和物理教學樓,還包括一個自行車車間,Reels是另一座蜿蜒曲折的學術建筑,用于社會科學、藝術、電影和行政管理,Meals或是家園式建筑,一個鋸齒形結構,有一個高聳的餐廳,一個測試廚房,和圖書館。

    The school was developed in phases, starting with a temporary modular facility designed by EDR that opened in 2017 (and is now gone). Four main buildings embrace a generous quad (with geothermal wells underneath) at their center. Each of the buildings embodies a signature program: Wheels, a lithe, snaking classroom building for math and physics, including a bike workshop; Reels, another serpentine academic building, for social sciences, art, and film, as well as administration; and Meals, or the Home building, a zigzagging structure with a soaring dining hall, a test kitchen, and library.

    開放校園實踐——塔登(Thaden)學校第12張圖片

    開放校園實踐——塔登(Thaden)學校第13張圖片

    在將校園一分為二的街道對面,一個獨立的自行車倉庫是一個鮮紅色的跳躍屋頂,自然通風的木結構建筑,毗鄰運動場和自行車車道。谷倉作為體育館和騎行者使用的步道網絡中心。最近增建的表演大樓,容納了最先進的禮堂和練習室,它位于校園的西北邊緣,允許公眾進入。一個例外是小巧的白色隔板Thaden大樓,這是本頓維爾出生和長大的先驅飛行員Louise Thaden(學校就是以她的名字命名的)重新安置和翻修過的童年住宅。Thaden大樓樓設有招生辦公室,坐落在落客區旁邊,旁邊是一片楓木廣場。

    The Bike Barn—which sits by itself across the street that cuts the campus in two—is a bright red gambrel-roofed, naturally ventilated wood structure, abutting playing fields and a pump track for bikes. The barn serves as a gymnasium and hub for cyclists using the network of nearby trails. The most recent addition, the Performance building, houses a state-of-the-art auditorium and practice rooms; on the northwest edge of campus, it is easily accessed by the public. An outlier—the diminutive white clapboard Thaden House, the relocated and renovated childhood home of Bentonville born-and-bred pioneering aviator Louise Thaden, for whom the school is named—contains the admissions office and sits along the dropoff area, next to a maple bosque.

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    受景觀設計中家禽棚的啟發,團隊最初將校園設想為一系列東西走向的線性體量。建筑師劃分了結構設計,EDR設計了大型住宅建筑,MBA設計了教學樓、表演中心和谷倉。隨著項目的進展,表單也在不斷變化。對于該建筑,EDR將設計體量安排成z形,并通過立縫屋頂的“懸垂”組合創建了一個有凝聚力的整體。對于“車輪和卷軸”建筑,MBA設計了線性形式,并增加了切口,比如門廊和通風通道,以打破長而窄的建筑墻壁。這些切口,以及住宅建筑的開口,在整個院子的結構之間建立了對話,可以用于戶外學習。對于屋頂的接合,MBA校長Marlon Blackwell喜歡稱之為“傾斜和滾動”,其定義了室內空間和區域。建筑師說:“我們認為這是一種外殼,墻壁和屋頂使用相同的材料。這些表面的褶皺形成了天窗,將陽光引入雙層走廊!盡BA項目經理Josh Matthews指出:“客戶認為,學校的生活就發生在走廊里!
      
    Inspired by the poultry sheds that dot the landscape, the team originally conceived the campus as a series of linear volumes running east–west. The architects divided the design of the structures, with EDR taking on the large Home building and MBA the classroom buildings, performance center, and barn. The forms evolved as the project progressed. For its building, EDR arranged the programmatic volumes into a Z-shape, and created a cohesive whole by “draping” the assemblage with a standing-seam roof. For the Wheels and Reels buildings, MBA cranked the linear forms and added cut-throughs, like porches and breezeways, to break up the long, narrow buildings’ walls. These openings, along with those of the Home building, establish a dialogue among structures across the quad, and can be used to bring learning outdoors. The articulation of the roofs—what MBA principal Marlon Blackwell likes to call “pitching and rolling”—defines interior spaces and zones. “We thought about this as a type of carapace, where wall and roof are of the same material,” says the architect. Pleating on these surfaces formed clerestories to bring daylight into the double-loaded corridors. “The client believes the life of the school takes place in the hallways,” notes MBA project manager Josh Matthews.

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    雖然兩家公司的建筑作品都使用了一般正式的設計語言,都是通俗易懂的作品,但他們在材料的使用有所不同,MBA主要研究的是包有盒肋金屬板系統的鋼結構,而EDR使用的是2*6承重框架,包有纖維水泥板和木條,凹槽部分內襯雪松。Dumez指出:“碳中和成本決定了材料的選擇。整個室內采用了實用材料,如膠合板和混凝土,強調了這是一個可實際控制的環境!

    While the two firms’ work shares a formal language, with ground-hugging, vernacular-inspired volumes, they depart in their material use, with MBA working largely with steel structures clad with a box-rib metal panel system and EDR using load-bearing 2-by-6 framing clad in fiber-cement board and batten, with recessed portions lined in cedar. “Carbon and cost” drove the material choices, notes Dumez. Throughout, interiors employ a palette of practical materials, such as plywood and concrete, underscoring the fact that this is a hands-on environment.

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    Thaden學院希望在校園的每一平方英寸都能找到學習的機會,而設計師們緊密而獨特的方法具有明顯的教學價值。同樣重要的是,這個合作團隊所創造的大膽的建筑和景觀可以體現人們冒險的價值,并點燃對未來的想象力。

    The Thaden School hopes to find a learning opportunity in every square inch of its campus—and the designers’ cohesive but distinct approaches have clear didactic merit. No less important, the intrepid architecture and landscape this collaborative team has created can teach the value of risk-taking and ignite imaginations into the future.

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