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    高標準的社區服務型校園——馬賽礦石小學第1張圖片

    法國Tautem Architecture事務所的Antoine de Ruffi 學校
    Groupe Scolaire Antoine de Ruffi by Tautem Architecture

    由專筑網江鵬,小R編譯

    馬賽是法國第二大城市,去年9月,當Macron總統在那里度過了前所未有的三天,他的任務是解決這個古老港口面臨的巨大問題。其中之一就是有許多學校資金不足,窮困潦倒。衰退的根源是20世紀晚期的去工業化,在短短20年里,這座城市失去了5萬個工作崗位和15萬居民。而1995年首次啟動的項目名為“歐洲地中!,而目前正在進行的半廢棄港口地區的城市再生,集中在Arenc和La Joliette社區及其周圍的1186英畝土地上。Antoine de Ruffi的新學校綜合體就在這一范圍內,附近有著2011年的一個標志性項目——扎哈·哈迪德CMA-CGM總部,這些項目都在為快速發展的地區服務。

    從學校周邊環境來看,人們可以清楚地看到該地區的變化,在南側是一個20世紀30年代的傳統住宅街區,東邊是上世紀10年代的肥皂廠,后面是巨大的混凝土糧倉,在北側是一幢正在建設中的18層公寓樓,而西側有一大片專門用作國際學校的空地。該項目的首席建筑師Adrian Garcin說:“這是一個相當大的問題。過了馬路,你仿佛置身于另一個世界。此外,我們知道自己將參與到一個令人印象深刻的項目中。在這種背景下,我們認為學校應該成為社區的地標,成為居民的出行參考點!

    Marseille, France’s gritty second city, was much in the news last September when President Macron spent an unprecedented three days there, on a mission to sort out the enormous problems facing this ancient port. Among them is the state of Marseille’s schools, many of which are underfunded and literally falling down. At the root of the decline is late 20th-century deindustrialization, which saw the city lose 50,000 jobs and 150,000 inhabitants in just 20 years. The ongoing regeneration of the half-abandoned port area—first launched in 1995 and baptized Euroméditerranée—focuses on 1,186 acres of land in and around the Arenc and La Joliette neighborhoods. It now includes a new school complex for the Groupe Scolaire Antoine de Ruffi, located in the shadow of Zaha Hadid’s 2011 CMA-CGM headquarters (an emblematic Euroméditerranée project right on the waterfront) that was built to serve a rapidly evolving district.
    An idea of the sweeping changes is clear from looking at the school’s immediate neighbors: to the south, a 1930s social-housing block; to the east, a 1910s soap factory, behind which are giant concrete grain silos; to the north, on a party wall plot, an 18-story apartment building currently under construction; and, to the west, a vast empty lot earmarked for an international school. “It’s rather a problem area,” says Adrian Garcin, principal of Tautem, lead architect on the project. “Cross the road, and you’re in another world. Moreover, we knew we were going to have to exist next to dense, imposing projects. Given the context, we felt the school should be a landmark for the neighborhood, a reference point for its inhabitants.”

    高標準的社區服務型校園——馬賽礦石小學第2張圖片

    高標準的社區服務型校園——馬賽礦石小學第3張圖片

    高標準的社區服務型校園——馬賽礦石小學第4張圖片

    高標準的社區服務型校園——馬賽礦石小學第5張圖片

    該項目還有一個問題就是基地的處理,基地實在是太小了,遠不能滿足建設計劃需求,這里要建設一所3~6歲學齡的幼兒園和一所6 ~11歲學齡的小學,容納480名左右的學生,實際需要43000平方英尺的面積,加上室外操場,但是不得不被壓縮到23600平方英尺多。Garcin繼續說:“這是最大的挑戰,我認為我們能贏得了設計競賽,是因為我們的方案提供了一個最大的游樂場!

    寬敞的各年級運動場在場地的中心,位于教室的后面,一直延伸到街道控制線。因此,學校功能空間被堆疊在一起,幼兒園占據了一層和二層,小學占據了二層、三層和四層。盡管兩所學校之間存在聯系,但它們仍然是獨立的機構,每一所學校都有自己的校長。它們共享一個入口門廊,但在立面上有一個露天樓梯,小學生可以直接去往他們的教學空間。屋頂上也有獨立的操場,以及一個體育場地,而幼兒園的學生則使用庭院,這兩個活動場地都可以欣賞到港口迷人的景色。建筑師Garcin就在60英里外的尼姆(Nîmes)長大,他對地中海的氣候非常熟悉,并相應地調整了這棟建筑。建筑向北和向西的大面積玻璃庭院立面,被外部走廊寬闊的懸挑遮蔽,而基地的西側被一個兩層樓高的柱廊包圍,正如Garcin所描述的那樣,這些措施為建筑提供了遮陽和視覺上的遮蔽。另一方面,混凝土建造的街道立面遠沒有那么開放,建筑師Garcin認為這種材料比木頭更適合當地的氣候,因為木頭很容易老化。Garcin說:“立面是對地中海建筑的一封情書,由太陽雕刻而成,就像紀念碑一樣,其特點是深孔,保護街道邊的玻璃免受最熱的光線照射。它們根據4英尺的節奏來排列,以柱廊的間隔來表達,柱廊在屋頂層可以為運動場遮陽,在外部樓梯上也圍繞著建筑!

    There was also the question of how to deal with a site that was arguably too small for the required program: an école maternelle (ages 3 to 6) and an école élémentaire (ages 6 to 11), whose combined 480 or so pupils needed 43,000 square feet of floor space, plus outdoor playgrounds, that had to be squeezed into a 23,600-square-foot lot. “That was the biggest challenge,” continues Garcin. “I think we won the design competition because our scheme proposed the largest playgrounds.”
    The generous grade-level playground is protected at the heart of the site behind classroom wings built right to the street line. Consequently, the schools are stacked on top of each other, the école maternelle occupying levels one and two and the école élémentaire levels two, three, and four. Although there is physical porosity between them, the schools remain separate institutions, each with its own principal. They share an entrance porch, but an open-air staircase, expressed on the facade, allows elementary pupils to reach their part of the building directly. They also have their own playground on the roof (maternelle pupils use the courtyard), as well as a sports court, both of which enjoy impressive views toward the port. Garcin, who grew up 60 miles away, in Nîmes, knows the Mediterranean climate well, and adapted the building accordingly. Its generously glazed courtyard facades, which face north and west, are shaded by the broad overhangs of external walkways, while the unbuilt western side of the site is enclosed by a two-story-high “colonnade,” as Garcin describes it, that provides both solar and visual veiling. The street facades, on the other hand, are far less open, and realized in concrete—a material he considers better suited to the local climate than wood, which he believes ages badly. “The facades are a love letter to Mediterranean architecture, sculpted by the sun,” says Garcin of the monumental elevations, which feature deep embrasures to protect the street-side glazing from the hottest rays. They are cadenced according to a 4-foot measure, expressed in the intervals of the colonnade, which wraps around the building both at roof level (protecting the sports court) and on the external stair.

    高標準的社區服務型校園——馬賽礦石小學第6張圖片

    高標準的社區服務型校園——馬賽礦石小學第7張圖片

    高標準的社區服務型校園——馬賽礦石小學第8張圖片

    混凝土的高熱慣性有助于確保內部溫度均勻,在內外部都得以直接裸露,立面上在三層也有表現,8英寸的內部承重梁,然后是5½英寸的剛性保溫層,最后是外部的5½英寸的混凝土。該項目的環保目標包括使混凝土盡可能低碳,現場混合以減少運輸,其沙子和骨料來自附近的采石場,而三分之二的水泥由25英里外金屬鑄造廠的礦渣替代。而木材并非完全棄用,它在結構上被用于非外墻處,也用于學校內部的覆蓋層和家具,木材的板條肌理與外立面的柱廊相呼應,教室天花板上暴露的混凝土梁也是如此,其長度為4英尺。綠地島嶼點綴著庭院操場,盡管建筑師提出的屋頂種植被城市維護部門否決了。

    Concrete, whose high thermal inertia helps ensure even temperatures inside, is revealed both within and without, the facades being realized in three layers: 8 load-bearing inches on the interior, followed by 5½ inches of rigid insulation, then another 5½ inches of concrete on the exterior. The project’s environmental ambitions included making the concrete as low-carbon as possible: mixed on-site to minimize deliveries, its sand and aggregate were sourced from nearby quarries, while two-thirds of the cement was replaced by slag from the metal foundries at Fos-sur-Mer, 25 miles away. Wood was not entirely eschewed: it was used structurally for non-external walls and also throughout the school’s interior for cladding and furnishings whose slats echo the facade colonnade (as do the exposed concrete beams on the classroom ceilings, which follow the 4-foot measure). Islands of greenery dot the courtyard playground, although roof planting, which the architects proposed, was vetoed by the city’s maintenance department.

    高標準的社區服務型校園——馬賽礦石小學第9張圖片

    在室內,所有的教室都有充足的采光,庭院邊的教室向外開放,這要歸功于可滑動的落地玻璃,而四層的教室則可以享受鋸齒狀屋頂帶來的額外光線。鋸齒狀屋頂延伸到小學的部分操場上方,因此操場仍然可以在下雨時使用,建筑的第五立面完全沒有機械設備,這些設備隱藏在當地規定層高的最底層。建筑師負責大部分的家具設計,他們能夠減少教室的雜亂,甚至去掉散熱器,因為他們選擇安裝采暖和制冷地板,由歐洲地中海的水熱海水系統提供。通過如此巧妙的規劃和細節設計,這座建筑為馬賽老舊學校的更新設定了很高的標準。

    高標準的社區服務型校園——馬賽礦石小學第10張圖片

    高標準的社區服務型校園——馬賽礦石小學第11張圖片

    項目信息

    建筑師:Tautem Architecture — Adrian Garcin, principal
    助理架構師:BMC2 Architectes
    工程師:BEST Portefaix (structural); Elithis (m/e)
    顧問:Even Conseil(環境);Gui Jourdan(聲學);Seri(基礎設施);Ekos(土壤凈化)
    客戶:Euroméditerraneée
    所有者:馬賽市
    面積:44670平方英尺
    建筑成本:1300萬美元
    竣工日期:2021 01月

    外部包層:Carl Stahl; Montibert; Griesser; Kronoply OSB; Knauf; Girard Siniat
    戶外柔性地板:Kompan
    Windows:Wincona; Menuiserie du Pharo
    門:Malerba; Delarosa
    隔音天花板:Rockfon
    彈性地板:Forbo
    活動地板:Thermozyclus
    油漆和污漬:Unicalo

    Credits
    Architect: Tautem Architecture — Adrian Garcin, principal
    Associate Architect: BMC2 Architectes
    Engineers: BEST Portefaix (structural); Elithis (m/e)
    Consultants: Even Conseil (environmental); Gui Jourdan (acoustics); Seri (infrastructure); Ekos (soil decontamination)
    Client: Euroméditerranée
    Owner: City of Marseille
    Size: 44,670 square feet
    Construction Cost: $13 million
    Completion Date: January 2021

    Sources
    Exterior Cladding: Carl Stahl; Montibert; Griesser; Kronoply OSB; Knauf; Girard Siniat
    Outdoor Flexible-floor Covering: Kompan
    Windows: Wincona; Menuiserie du Pharo
    Doors: Malerba; Delarosa
    Acoustical Ceilings: Rockfon
    Resilient Flooring: Forbo
    Raised Flooring: Thermozyclus
    Paints & Stains: Unicalo

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