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    批評是一種對建筑世界的參與行為第1張圖片

    建筑批評的意義何在?
    What’s the Point of Architecture Criticism?

    由專筑網Zia,小R編譯

    這篇文章最初發表在Common Edge.

    究竟,建筑批評的意義何在?“批評”這個詞來自希臘語的krinein,意思是分離、篩選、區分、辨別、檢查或判斷。根據建筑師和教育家Wayne Attoe的說法,他在《建筑與批判性想象》(Architecture and Critical Imagination)一書(現在不幸絕版)中提到了建筑批評,他說這并不一定意味著不贊成,或者尋找瑕疵,它可以是正面的,也可以是負面的;它可以是贊美的,也可以是譴責的。

    Attoe將批評看做一樣東西,或者說是產品,將批評視作一種行為。當作為一種行為的時候,批評是一種觀察、檢查的模式,是評估我們周圍建筑世界的方式。如果你這樣想,就很容易理解為什么批評家總是存在,因為批評是一個批評家的工作方式,很難去阻止這種行為。要求一個批評家停止批評就像要求一個人不能看到綠色一樣,這就是批評家看待世界的方式。

    Attoe認為,批評應該是產生更好作品的工具。實現這一目標的關鍵是將批評視為一種行為,而不是一種判斷。談到對批評的批判,他認為,“批評在為未來提供信息時,總是比為過去的打分時更有用”。那么,批評如何能夠為未來提供信息,使更好的工作成為可能?或者,使建筑環境的質量發生變化?答案就在“非專業”建筑評論家的領域里。

    今天我們溝通和分享信息的方式,可能使我們每個人都可以成為建筑評論家。今天,非專業建筑評論的渠道比以往任何時候都多。從旅游博客和TripAdvisor等網站上關于人們度假地點建筑的大量帖子中看到了這種跡象。當然,非專業的建筑評論家們似乎也都饒有興趣。

    在Alexandra Lange的《Writing About Architecture》一書中,有“人人都是批評家”的暗示,其開篇的標題是“如何成為一名建筑批評家”。Lange寫了批評家如何運作,他們如何組織他們的語言,以及他們使用的方法。她的目的是要傳遞給公眾關于批評的知識。她寫道,我們需要的是“更多的批評家——公民批評家,以及改造城市的愿望和語匯”。

    雖然Lange為她的讀者提供了著名的建筑環境評論家的作品,如Ada Louise Huxtable、Lewis Mumford、Michael Sorkin、Frederick Law Omsted和Charles Moore作為批評的試金石,但Attoe提出了一種不同的方法,他的書比Lange的書早了大約35年,并有類似的看法,即認為我們每個人都可以成為批評家。Attoe認為,建筑批評一直在發生,并且來自于我們每個人。他指出,包括非專業批評家的工作是“一種特殊觀點的產物,即人們在建筑環境中和關于建筑環境所做的一切幾乎都是批評形式”。我們所有的人,建筑師和非建筑師,在很多時候都在進行評論,正如Attoe所描述的那樣,“是各種行為的集合”。

    這樣的批評觀點是一種極端的解放。雖然它挑戰了我們對建筑評論家的概念,即擁有專業知識和經驗的人受邀對建筑作品作出判斷,但它似乎更符合人們與建筑實際互動的方式:擁抱它或逃避它。這種認識在各種批評類型中都很明顯,從入住后的評估和William H. Whyte的標志性工作到今天人們與建筑世界互動的YouTube和TikTok視頻。

    “非專業批評家--沒有接受過專業批評或設計師培訓的人,或者那些沒有委托項目的人,他們每天都與建筑環境打交道,直接實踐他們的建筑批評!

    Attoe的非專業批評的分類包括四個領域,對環境的態度、環境中的采納行為、對環境的無意改造和對環境的有意改造。第一種是記錄在書面或口頭的回應中,比如給編輯的信、個人博客、推特,以及用戶對建筑的文章作出的回應。你也可以通過調查來衡量態度:例如,根據對用戶的采訪,一個公共空間的位置和設計是否能吸引人們去那里?

    環境中的采納行為是指非專業批評家按原樣接受,不加修改。非專業評論家用他們的雙腳進行投票:他們要么涌向這個場所,要么避開它。對環境的無意改造行為發生在人們無意中改變了他們所使用的環境,甚至沒有意識到他們正在這樣做。例如,我們都看到公共公園的草坪被磨掉了,出現了一條直線連接兩點,這就是一種無意的修改,表明了行人的偏好。

    對環境的有意改造是四種行為中最有趣的一個,不僅是對建筑環境的批評,同時也采取了行動,往往為了改善它。例如,在戰后的Levittown,曲高和寡的Cape Cods被居民改造,以至于現在的房子都很獨特。Le Corbusier于1924年在佩薩克建造的房屋也經歷了類似的轉變,房主們有意對其進行改造,使他們的住所更符合他們所認為的“家”的含義。研究這些改造的歷史學家Phillippe Boudon寫道:“Le Corbusier顯然認為這個項目是失敗的,他說住戶‘必須改變他的觀點’,但他不知道的是,住戶非常輕松地改變了建筑!

    在過去的40年左右,我教過一門課程,“關于建筑的寫作”,它是根據Attoe的批評分類法制定的。學生們很容易理解這個框架的用處,因為這個方法允許他們使用書面語言以外的各種手段來批評建筑環境。該課程的重點不是在正式的、專業的意義上創造新的批評家,而是幫助學生更多的評論——作為對建筑世界的一種回應行為,并鼓勵他們闡明建筑觀點,可以作為評估他們自己和其他建筑的一個部分。我相信,這將使學生受到更好的教育,并最終培養出更好的建筑師和設計師,讓他們明白他們不可能是客觀的,他們從一個非常主觀的有利位置看世界,并且其他人也會這樣做。沒有人可以成為一個客觀的批評家。E.B. White對這一點表達得最清楚,他寫道:“凡是動筆的人都是在寫自己”。同時,我想補充的是,即使她寫的是建筑。

    在一個每個人都有可能成為批評家的世界里,這樣的工具是無價的,因為它們幫助我們組織經驗,看到現有的東西,以及未來的可能。詩人William Butler Yeats寫道:“有另一個世界,但它就在這個世界里”,這可能是對非專業建筑評論家工作的描述。非專業的建筑評論家與專業的建筑評論家一樣,希望能夠有所作為,就算不能立即改變我們周圍的建筑世界,也可以重新構筑我們每個人內心潛在的建筑世界。

    This article was originally published on Common Edge.
    What, exactly, is the point of architecture criticism? The word “criticism” is derived from the Greek term krinein, meaning to separate, to sift, to make distinctions, to discern, to examine, or to judge. According to Wayne Attoe, an architect and educator who writes about architecture criticism in his book Architecture and Critical Imagination (now sadly out of print), this does not necessarily mean to disapprove of, or to find fault with. It can be favorable or unfavorable; it can praise or condemn.
    Attoe makes the distinction between criticism as a thing—a product—and criticism as a behavior. As a behavior, criticism is a mode of seeing, of examining, the way in which we assess the built world around us. If you think of it this way, it’s easy to understand why critics are always “on,” so to speak. Being critical is a critic’s modus operandi. It’s hard to just turn it off. Asking a critic to stop being critical is like asking someone to stop seeing the color green. It’s the way the critic beholds the world.
    Criticism, Attoe argues, should be a tool for generating better work. The key to achieving this is to see criticism as a behavior and not a judgment. When it comes to being critical of criticism, Attoe observes that “criticism will always be more useful when it informs the future than when it scores the past.” So how might criticism be useful in informing the future, to make better work possible—essentially, to make a difference in the quality of the built environment? The answer lies in the realm of the “lay” architecture critic.
    How we communicate and share information today potentially makes every one of us an architecture critic. There are more outlets today for the lay architecture critic than ever before. We see signs of this in the wealth of travel blogs and posts on sites like TripAdvisor about the architecture of the places where people vacation. There certainly seems to be an interest among nonprofessional architecture critics.
    There’s a hint of this blossoming of “everyone a critic” in Alexandra Lange’s book Writing About Architecture, whose opening chapter is titled “How to Be an Architecture Critic.” Lange writes about how critics operate, how they structure their critiques, and the methods they use. Her intent is to educate the public about criticism. What we need, she writes, “are more critics—citizen critics—equipped with the desire and the vocabulary to remake the city.”
    While Lange offers her readers the work of noted commentators of the built environment—such as Ada Louise Huxtable, Lewis Mumford, Michael Sorkin, Frederick Law Omsted, and Charles Moore—as touchstones of criticism, a different approach is suggested by Attoe, whose book predates Lange’s by some 35 years and has a similar mission to transform each of us into a critic. Attoe’s approach asserts that architectural criticism is happening all the time, by everyone, if we choose to recognize it. He notes that what we might include as the work of the lay critic is “the product of a particular point of view, namely that virtually everything people do in and about the built environment is a form of criticism.” All of us, architects and non-architects, engage in criticism much of the time, in an “ongoing collection of diverse behaviors,” as Attoe describes it.
    Such a view of criticism is liberating in the extreme. While it challenges our conception of the architecture critic as someone with specialized knowledge and experience who is anointed to pass judgment on works of architecture, it seems to be much more in line with the way people actually interact with architecture: by embracing it or running from it. That recognition is evident in a variety of critique types, everything from post-occupancy building evaluations and the landmark work of William H. Whyte to YouTube and TikTok videos today of people interacting with the built world.
    “Lay critics—people not trained as professional critics or designers, or those who don’t commission projects—interact with the built environment every day and practice their architecture criticism directly.”
    Attoe’s taxonomy of lay criticism includes four realms: Attitude Toward the Environment, Adoptive Behavior Within the Environment, Unintentional Modification of the Environment, and Intentional Modification of the Environment. The first is recorded in written or verbal responses in such forums as letters to the editor, personal blogs, tweets, and comments to articles about architecture that users make in response to it. You can also gauge attitude through surveys: for example, based on interviews with users, is the location and design of a public space inviting for people to be there?
    Adoptive Behavior Within the Environment means that the lay critic accepts it as is, without modification. Lay critics vote with their feet; they either flock to a public place or avoid it. Unintentional Modification of the Environment happens when people unintentionally change the environments they use without even realizing they’re doing it. For example, we’ve all seen grass in a public park worn away connecting two points with a straight line; it’s an unintentional modification, indicating a preference on the part of the pedestrian.
    Intentional Modification of the Environment, perhaps the most interesting of the quartet, is a critique of the built environment in which the lay critic intentionally acts upon it, often to improve it. For example, in postwar Levittown identical, cookie-cutter Cape Cods were modified by residents over the years to the point where the houses are now all different. Le Corbusier’s housing in Pessac, built in 1924, underwent similar transformation, as the homeowners intentionally modified them to make their domiciles more what they thought a “home” should be. The historian Phillippe Boudon who studied these modifications writes: “Le Corbusier, who apparently considered this project a failure, stated that the tenant ‘must change his outlook,’ but unbeknownst to him, it was the tenant who with great ease changed the architecture.”
    For the past 40 years or so I’ve taught a course, “Writing About Architecture,”that is formulated on Attoe’s taxonomy of criticism. Students readily apprehend the usefulness of this framework, in that it allows them to critique the built environment using a variety of means beyond the written word. The point of the course is not to create new critics in the formal, professional sense, but to help students to be more critical—as a behavior—of the built world and to encourage them to articulate an architectural point of view that can be used as a lens to assess architecture, their own and that of others. This leads, I believe, to a better-educated student and ultimately to better architects—designers who understand that they cannot be objective, that they see the world from a very personal vantage point, and that they can expect the same of others. No one can be an objective critic. E.B. White expressed this best when he wrote, “Whoever sets pen to paper writes of himself.” And, I would add, even if she writes about architecture.
    In a world where everyone is potentially a critic, such tools are invaluable because they help us to organize our experiences and see what is there, as well as what the future could be. The poet William Butler Yeats could have been describing the promise of the work of the lay architecture critic when he wrote, “There is another world, but it is in this one.” The lay critic shares with the professional one the hope to make a difference, if not immediately in the built world around us, then in the potential built world inside each one of us.

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